Viral Infectious Disease

Viral Infectious Diseases

Viruses are very tiny germs. They are made of genetic material inside of a protein coating. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases. Viruses are like hijackers. They invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce other viruses like themselves. This can kill, damage, or change the cells and make you sick. Different viruses attack certain cells in your body such as your liver, respiratory system, or blood. Viral Infection is one of the most common ailments affecting people. In simple parlance, a disease that is/can be caused by different types of virus is known as Viral Infection. 

      It can affect various parts of the human body. It is observed that some viruses are in the intestine, while many are in lungs and airways. When infected, a patient may complain about abdominal pain, diarrhea, coughing and breathlessness. Viruses can be termed hijackers, as they invade healthy, living and normal cells to produce and multiply other viruses like them. The interesting thing about viruses is that they are extremely unique microorganisms since they cannot reproduce without a host cell. So, after entering the host cell, the genetic material of the virus takes charge of the host cell and compels it to replicate the virus.

     There are many kinds of viruses- gastro intestinal viruses and airways viruses, being the most common ones. These viruses mostly cause fatigue and fever. Other viruses cause other local symptoms such as laryngitis, shingles and cold sores.

Many human diseases are caused by virus led infections.

  • Smallpox
  • Cold
  • chickenpox
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis
  • Human Papillomavirus
  • Influenza
  • Shingles
  • Herpes
  • Polio
  • Rabies
  • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
  • Cold Sores
  • Ebola
  • SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Dengue
  • Some types of Cancer

Some other diseases

  • AIDS: Specific damage to the immune system caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Chickenpox (Varicella): Caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) leading to appearance of spots, mainly on the body and head.
  • Common cold: Disease of the upper respiratory system that arises due to rhinovirus, influenza viruses, picornavirus, adenoviruses etc. It is also called acute viral nasopharyngitis.
  • Colorado tick fever: Transmitted from the bite of a wood tic infected with the Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV).
  • Dengue fever: Transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with the dengue virus.
  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Caused by ebola viruses that lead to diarrhea, internal and external bleeding, fever, general body pain, and vomiting.
  • Hand, foot and mouth disease: Common cause is Coxsackie A virus, which usually affects infants and children.
  • Viral hepatitis: Characterized by liver inflammation arising due to viruses belonging several families of viruses including hepadnaviridae, hepeviridae, adenoviridae etc.
  • Herpes simplex: Caused by viruses of the family herpesviridae, and characterized by itching, swelling, emission of fluid from swelling, headache, fatigue, and overall gloomy mental state.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections: Sexually transmitted viral infections of skin and mucous membranes that arise due to HPV, and are often associated with cervical cancer.
  • Influenza (Flu): Caused by influenza viruses that belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae, and characterized by sore throat, fever, headache, muscle pains, weakness, coughing, and discomfort.
  • Lassa fever: Initially mucosa, intestine, lungs, urinary systems are affected due to the Lassa virus. The vascular system, then is affected with the condition metastasizing to every tissue in the body.
  • Measles: Is spread through respiration and is highly contagious disease caused by measles virus that belongs to Morbillivirus family of viruses.
  • Marburg hemorrhagic fever: Caused by Marburg virus which is transmitted through bodily fluids, like saliva, vomit, blood, and excrement.
  • Infectious mononucleosis: Common in adolescents and young adults, characterized by fever, muscle soreness, sore throat, and fatigue owing to an infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • Mumps: Characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands and fever due to the mumps virus belonging to genus Rubulavirus. Testicular swelling and rash may also occur.
  • Polio: Spread from one person to other due to transmission of poliovirus via the fecal-oral route, e.g., poor hand washing.
  • Rabies: Transmission of rabies virus through bites, aerosol, mucous membranes, transplant surgery, etc. leads to acute encephalitis and flu-like symptoms.
  • Rubella: Also called as German measles, it is caused by rubella virus that enters the body via nose or throat.
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): Characterized by fever, lethargy, myalgia, cough, sore throat, and gastrointestinal symptoms arising due to SARS coronavirus.
  • Smallpox (Variola): Caused by Variola major and Variola minor, this viral disease has been eradicated globally by 1980. It is characterized by skin scars and occasionally blindness due to corneal ulcerations and infertility in male survivors.
  • Viral encephalitis: An acute inflammation of the brain resulting due infection with viruses, namely arboviruses, herpes simplex virus, rabies virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), etc.
  • Viral gastroenteritis: A rotavirus infection that grips children, especially of the developing countries. Vomiting, chill, diarrhea, and stomach cramps are some of the prominent indicants.
  • Viral meningitis: Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the nervous system due to an infection with herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, cytomegalovirus, HIV, mumps virus, etc.
  • Viral pneumonia: An illness of the lungs and respiratory system caused by influenza virus A and B, adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus, VZV, etc.
  • West Nile disease: Caused by the West Nile virus (WNV) and transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito.
  • Yellow fever: Viral hemorrhagic illness arising due to yellow fever virus and is common in many African and South American nations.


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