Typhoid fever

An Ovrerview

fever and paratyphoid fever have similar symptoms̵. People usually have a sustained fever (one that doesn’t come and go) that can be as high as 103–104°F (39–40°C). Most people who have typhoid fever feel better a few days after they start antibiotic treatment, but a small number of them may die of complications. Vaccines against typhoid fever are only partially effective. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or who are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common.

Symptoms of typhoid fever

Other symptoms of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever include

• Weakness
• Stomach pain
• Headache
• Diarrhea or constipation
• Cough
• Loss of appetite

Causes of Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is caused by dangerous bacteria called Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi is related to the bacteria that cause salmonellosis, another serious intestinal infection, but they aren’t the same.v
The bacteria enter the human body through the contaminated foods and water, where it then enters into the intestinal cells of the human body. Later, it passes through the bloodstream and destroys the lymphatic system and spreads throughout the body. This bacterium is mainly carried by the white blood cells present in the liver and also the bone marrow. There, they multiply and re-enter the blood cells, which in turn, causes a number of symptoms to appear in the later stages.

Fecal-oral transmission route

• Most people in developed countries pick up typhoid bacteria while they’re traveling. Once they have been infected, they can spread it to others through the fecal-oral route.
• This means that Salmonella typhi is passed in the feces and sometimes in the urine of infected people. If you eat food that has been handled by someone who has typhoid fever and who hasn’t washed carefully after using the toilet, you can become infected.

Diagnosis

Medical and travel history

Your doctor is likely to suspect typhoid fever based on your symptoms and your medical and travel history. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by identifying Salmonella typhi in a culture of your blood or other body fluid or tissue.

Body fluid or tissue culture

For the culture, a small sample of your blood, stool, urine or bone marrow is placed on a special medium that encourages the growth of bacteria. The culture is checked under a microscope for the presence of typhoid bacteria. A bone marrow culture often is the most sensitive test for Salmonella typhi.
Although performing a culture test is the most common diagnostic test, other testing may be used to confirm a suspected typhoid fever infection, such as a test to detect antibodies to typhoid bacteria in your blood, or a test that checks for typhoid DNA in your blood.

Commonly prescribed antibiotics

Commonly prescribed antibiotics include:
• Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this for adults who aren’t pregnant. Another similar drug called ofloxacin also may be used. Unfortunately, many Salmonella typhi bacteria are no longer susceptible to antibiotics of this type, particularly strains picked up in Southeast Asia.
• Azithromycin (Zithromax). This may be used if a person is unable to take ciprofloxacin or the bacteria are resistant to ciprofloxacin.
• Ceftriaxone. This injectable antibiotic is an alternative in more-complicated or serious infections and for people who may not be andidates for ciprofloxacin, such as children.

Medications

Doctors treat typhoid fever with antibiotics. However, in some parts of the world strains of typhoid fever have become resistant to most antibiotics. Doctors and researchers must continually track which antibiotics continue to offer effective treatment

Treatment

  • Drinking fluids. This helps prevent the dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea. If you’re severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein (intravenously).
  • Surgery. If your intestines become torn, you’ll need surgery to repair the hole.
  • Vaccination. Vaccination can help prevent typhoid fever. CDC recommends vaccination for people traveling to places where typhoid fever is common, such as South Asia, especially India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh.
    Visit a doctor or travel clinic to discuss options.
    Two typhoid fever vaccines are available in the United States.
  • Oral vaccine: Can be given to people at least 6 years old. It consists of four pills taken every other day and should be finished at least 1 week before travel.
  •  Injectable vaccine: Can be given to people at least 2 years old and should be given at least 2 weeks before travel.

Foods to eat

• Cooked vegetables: potatoes, carrots, green beans, beets, squash
• Fruits: ripe bananas, melons, applesauce, canned fruit
• Grains: white rice, pasta, white bread, crackers
• Proteins: eggs, chicken, turkey, fish, tofu, ground meat
• Dairy products: low fat or fat-free pasteurized milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream (as tolerated)
• Beverages: bottled water, herbal tea, coconut water, juice, broth

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that causes a range of serious side effects.
The typhoid diet is a short-term eating plan that encourages low fiber, nutrient-dense foods that are easy to digest.
Although the typhoid diet is not intended to treat or prevent typhoid fever, it may help relieve certain symptoms when paired with medical intervention.

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