Hepatitis B

An Overview

Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver . It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis a condition that permanently scars of the liver. Most adults with hepatitis B recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic (long-lasting) hepatitis B infection.

The others are hepatitis A, C, D and E. Each is a different type of virus and types B and C are most likely to become chronic trusted source. It’s serious, but if you get the disease as an adult, it shouldn’t last a long time. Your body fights it off within a few months, and you’re immune for the rest of your life. Hepatitis can be acute (lasting just a few weeks to a few months), cause few if any symptoms and resolve on its own. It can also be chronic, meaning inflammation persists for six months or longer and can lead to serious and even life-threatening complications.

Symptoms for Hepatitis B

  • Jaundice. Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow and your pee turns brown or orange)
  • flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, a fever and general aches and pains
  • Light-colored poop
  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain
  • Joint pain
  • Feeling and being sick
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue that persists for weeks or months
  • Tummy Pain
  • Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting
  • Belly pain
  • loss of appetite
  • Dark Urine

Causes for Hepatitis B

Common ways that HBV can spread are:

Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. The virus is found in the blood and bodily fluids of an infected person. Many people with hepatitis B have few symptoms and may not know they’re infected. They may spread the infection without realizing it.

  • Sexual contact.You may get hepatitis B if you have unprotected sex with someone who is infected. The virus can pass to you if the person’s blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body.
  • A mother to her newborn baby, particularly in countries where the infection is common  all pregnant women in the UK are offered screening f hepatitis B; babies of infected mothers are vaccinated immediately after birth to help prevent infection.
  • Sharing of needles.HBV easily spreads through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. Sharing IV drug paraphernalia puts you at high risk of hepatitis B.
  • The blood of someone with hepatitis B getting into an open wound, cut or scratch – in rare cases, being bitten by someone with hepatitis B can also spread the infection.
  • Intimate contact with a person with HBV.
  • Accidental needle sticks.Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.
  • Mother to child.Pregnant women infected with HBV can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth. However, the newborn can be vaccinated to avoid getting infected in almost all cases. Talk to your doctor about being tested for hepatitis B if you are pregnant or want to become pregnant.


Doctors can usually diagnose hepatitis B with blood tests. Screening for hepatitis B may be recommended for individuals who:

Your doctor will examine you and look for signs of liver damage, such as yellowing skin or belly pain. Tests that can help diagnose hepatitis B or its complications are:

  • Blood Test.Blood tests can detect signs of the hepatitis B virus in your body and tell your doctor whether it’s acute or chronic. A simple blood test can also determine if you’re immune to the condition.
  • Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs).These show up after HBsAg disappears. They’re what make you immune to hepatitis B for the rest of your life.
  • Liver ultrasound.A special ultrasound called transient elastography can show the amount of liver damage.
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody(HBsAg). Antigens are proteins on the hepatitis B virus. Antibodies are proteins made by your immune cells.
  • Liver biopsy.Your doctor might remove a small sample of your liver for testing (liver biopsy) to check for liver damage. During this test, your doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and into your liver and removes a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.


Treatment helps reduce the risk of liver disease and prevents you from passing the infection to others

If you think you’ve been exposed to the virus, get to a doctor as soon as possible. The earlier you get treatment, the better.  Check with your doctor before taking any other drugs, herbal treatments or supplements. Some of them can harm this organ, too. Also, eat a healthy diet.  . 

Antiviral medications Several antiviral medications. These drugs are taken by mouth. Talk to your doctor about which medication might be right for you.

 If your liver has been severely damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver.

Give you a vaccine and a shot of hepatitis B immune globulin. This protein boosts your immune system and helps it fight off the infection.

Complications of Hepatitis B

Chronic hepatitis B can lead to:

  • Cirrhosis or scarring of the liver
  • Liver Failure
  • Fibrosis
  • Very Thick skin
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cryoglobulinemia
  • Kidney
  • Blood vessel problems
  • Viral co-infection


To help keep a hepatitis B infection from spreading:

Hepatitis B infection can be prevented by getting vaccine and HBIG (hepatitis B immune globulin) soon after coming into contact with the virus. It is important to remember that hepatitis B is not spread casually! It is not spread by coughing, sneezing, hugging, cooking and sharing food. It is spread through direct contact with infected blood and bodily fluids.

  • Get vaccinated (if you haven’t already been infected).
  • Do not inject drugs. If you do inject drugs, stop and get into a treatment program. If you can’t stop, never share needles, syringes, water or “works”.
  • Use condoms every time you have sex.
  • Clean up blood spills with a fresh diluted bleach solution (mix 1 part bleach with 9 parts water).
  • Wear gloves when you clean up after others, especially if you have to touch bandages, tampons and linens.
  • Cover all open cuts or wounds.
  • Don’t share razors, toothbrushes, nail care tools or pierced earrings with anyone.
  • Make sure new, sterile needles are used for ear or body piercing, tattoos and acupuncture.
  • Don’t share chewing gum and don’t pre-chew food for a baby.
  • Make certain that any needles for drugs, ear piercing or tattoos or tools for manicures and pedicures are properly sterilized.

Hope this Symptoms and cure article will be helpful to all. Do not forget to share your valuable suggestions if any.


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