Fungal and parasitic Infectious Diseases

Fungal Infectious Diseases

Fungal infections can affect anyone, and they can appear on several parts of the body. A jock with athlete’s foot, a baby with thrush, and a woman with a vaginal yeast infection are just a few examples. Fungal infections can be contagious. They can spread from one person to another. In some cases, you can also catch disease-causing fungi from infected animals or contaminated soil or surfaces.

      Harmful fungi invade the body, they can be difficult to kill, as they can survive in the environment and re-infect the person trying to get better. The symptoms of a fungal infection will depend on the type, but common symptoms include the following:

  • skin changes, including red and possibly cracking or peeling skin
  • itching

Fungal Infections:

  • Athlete’s foot
  • Yeast Infection
  • Jock itch
  • Ringworm

Some other Fungal Infections:

  • Athlete’s foot: Tinea pedis or athlete’s foot is a common fungal infection that affects the foot.
  • Aspergillosis:infection with fungi of the genus Aspergillus leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or invasive aspergillosis.
  • Blastomycosis:inhalation of fungus called Blastomyces dermatitidis from the natural soil habitat.
  • Coccidioidomycosis:caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal spores called arthroconidia belonging to the fungi Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii.
  • Cryptococcosis:caused by inhalation of soil contaminated with the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii.
  • Histoplasmosis:Histoplasma capsulatum infection that primarily affects the lungs.
  • Jock itch: These fungi love warm and damp environments and thrive in moist areas of the body, such as the groin, buttocks, and inner thighs. Jock itch may be more common in summer or in warm, humid areas of the world.
  • Ringworm: A red patch that may itch or be scaly will often turn into a raised, ring-shaped patch of skin over time. It may even spread out into several rings
  • Yeast Infection (Candidiasis): Vaginal yeast infections are a common form of Candida overgrowth in women, usually caused by  Candida albicans infection found in exposed and moist parts of the body, like the vagina, vulva, penis, foreskin, nostrils, ear, oral cavity, nipples, folds of skin in diaper area.

Parasitic  Infectious diseases

Parasitic infection is contamination of one organism with another living organism that then begins to feed off or reside in the initial organism. In humans this generally means infections with very large parasites that can be seen. The greatest chance of getting parasitic infections tends to occur in underdeveloped countries, where methods of keeping the water supply free from amoeba or large parasites may not be as advanced.

  • African trypanosomiasis:caused by the protozoa called Trypanosoma brucei which is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Symptoms are fever, headaches, and joint pains.
  • Amebiasis:due to ingestion of water, or food contaminated with cysts of amoeba or Entamoeba histolytica.
  • Ascariasis:due to ingestion of food contaminated with fecal matter containing eggs of the parasitic roundworm called Ascaris lumbricoides.
  • Babesiosis:caused by blood parasites belonging to the genus Babesia, and is generally transmitted by ticks.
  • Chagas disease:Trypanosoma cruzi infection transmitted to humans by blood-sucking assassin bugs.
  • Clonorchiasis:caused by the Chinese liver fluke termed Clonorchis sinensis.
  • Cryptosporidiosis:caused by contaminated material, like earth, water, uncooked or cross-contaminated food in contact with the feces of a person or animal infected with parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium.
  • Cysticercosis:caused by larvae of tapeworm called Taenia solium, generally found in pork.
  • Diphyllobothriasis:characterized by abdominal discomfort, vomiting, weight loss, and diarrhea due to ingestion of parasites belonging to the genus Diphyllobothrium.
  • Dracunculiasis:caused by drinking water, infected with guinea worms or Dracunculus medinensis.
  • Echinococcosis:fatal disease due to infection by larvae of tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus.
  • Enterobiasis:infection due to pinworm or Enterobius vermicularis leading to poor appetite, restless sleep, and itching of the anus.
  • Fascioliasis:caused by liver flukes called Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.
  • Fasciolopsiasis:caused due to raw consumption of aquatic plants infected with intestinal fluke called Fasciolopsis buski or by consuming infected water.
  • Filariasis:caused by roundworms belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea, which are transmitted by mosquitoes or deer fly.
  • Free-living amebic infection:caused by Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba spp. found in lakes, tap water, swimming pools, and air-conditioning units.
  • Giardiasis:gastroenteritis that starts in the small intestine due to infection by the protozoa Giardia lamblia.
  • Gnathostomiasis:due to migrating immature worms called Gnathostoma spinigerum and/or G. hispidum.
  • Hymenolepiasis:caused by Hymenolepis nana or H. diminuta.
  • Isosporiasis:Intestinal infection with Isospora belli leading to diarrhea and weight loss. It is sometimes linked with AIDS and immunocompromised states.
  • Leishmaniasis:transmitted by certain varieties of sand fly infected with protozoa of genus Leishmania.
  • Malaria:transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes infected with the blood parasites of genus Plasmodium.
  • Metagonimiasis:infection by intestinal flatworm, mainly Metagonimus yokagawai leading to symptoms like diarrhea and colicky abdominal pain.
  • Myiasis:caused by fly larvae feeding on the host’s necrotic or living tissue.
  • Onchocerciasis:the second leading infectious cause of blindness, with the infectious agent being Onchocerca volvulus.
  • Pediculosis:infestation of lice, members of the order Phthiraptera, on the human body.
  • Scabies:characterized by superficial burrows and intense itching due to skin infection with mites belonging to the genus Sarcoptes.
  • Schistosomiasis:due to infection of the blood with Schistosoma spp. leading to weakness, liver and intestinal damage.
  • Taeniasis:infection involving pork and beef tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
  • Toxocariasis:caused by ingestion of dog or cat roundworms called Toxocara canis and T. cati respectively.
  • Toxoplasmosis:due to ingestion of raw or partly cooked meat, contaminated cat feces, drinking water containing Toxoplasma gondii, transplacental infection in utero, infected organ transplant or blood transfusion.
  • Trichinellosis:caused by eating raw or undercooked pork, and wild game products infected with the larvae of roundworm called Trichinella spiralis.
  • Trichuriasis:infection of the large intestine by a parasite whipworm or Trichuris trichiura.
  • Trichomoniasis:sexually transmitted disease caused by Trichomonas virginals that infects the genitourinary tract.
  • Trypanosomiasis:caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosoma of the genus Trypanosoma.



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