Diabetes in children

Diabetes in Children

Diabetes is basically a disease, even it may usually happen through the genetic defects and that affects how the body uses glucose this is actually the main type of sugar in the blood system. Diabetes is a lifelong disease in which the blood sugar levels rise higher than normal. Until recently, children were mostly affected by type 1 form of diabetes (also called as juvenile diabetes) which is caused when the body is unable to make insulin- an important hormone for reducing excess sugar in the body. But this isn’t the case anymore. Increased numbers of children are now also getting type 2 form of diabetes, glucose, which automatically comes from the meals we eat, and it is the major cause of the energy which is simply needed to feed the body. To utilize glucose, the body needs the hormone which is called  Insulin.

Types of Diabetes in Children:

There are two types of diabetes which are:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes
  2. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child’s body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so you’ll have to replace the missing insulin. Type 1 diabetes in children requires consistent care. Also, in type 1 diabetes, the immune system hits the pancreas and even damages the cells that can help to make insulin in the body.

The examination of type 1 diabetes in children can be breaking or even able to be recognized first. Abruptly it takes you and your child to start learning about how to give injections or even according to his/her age, you both will have to learn how to monitor blood sugar.

The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, over a period of weeks. These signs and symptoms include:

1 .Increased thirst and frequent urination

Excess sugar building up in your child’s bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usual. A young, toilet-trained child might suddenly experience bed-wetting.

2 .Irritability or unusual behavior

Children with undiagnosed type 1 diabetes may suddenly seem moody or irritable. Your child might suddenly have a decline in performance at school.

3 .Extreme hunger

Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child’s cells, your child’s muscles and organs lack energy. This triggers intense hunger.

4 .Blurred vision

If your child’s blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your child’s eyes. This may affect your child’s ability to focus clearly.

5 .Weight loss

Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight — sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes to be noticed in children.

  1. Increased thirst and frequent urination

As excess sugar builds up in your child’s bloodstream, fluid is pulled from the tissues. This may leave your child thirsty. As a result, your child may drink — and urinate — more than usual.

  1. Fatigue

Lack of sugar in your child’s cells might make him or her tired and lethargic.

  1. Yeast infection.

Girls with type 1 diabetes may have a genital yeast infection. Babies can develop diaper rashes caused by yeast.

  1. Blurred vision.

If your child’s blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your child’s eyes. Your child might be unable to focus clearly.

  1. Itchiness around the penis or vagina
  2. Fruity-smelling breaths

 

Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes in children is a chronic disease that affects the way your child’s body processes sugar (glucose). It’s important to manage your child’s diabetes because its long-term consequences can be disabling or even life-threatening. In type 2 diabetes, the cells in your child’s body don’t respond to the insulin, and glucose builds up in her bloodstream.

1.Increased thirst and frequent urination.

Excess sugar building up in your child’s bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usually

2. Heavy breathing

3 .Weight loss

Without the energy that sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. However, weight loss is less common in children with type 2 diabetes than in children with type 1 diabetes.

4. Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet

5. Fatigue.

Lack of sugar in your child’s cells might make him or her tired and lethargic

6. Itchy skin

A person with diabetes should not ignore itchy skin. Dry, irritated, or itchy skin is more likely to become infected, and people with diabetes may not be able to fight off infections as successfully as those who do not have the condition.

7. Blurred vision

If your child’s blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your child’s eyes. Your child might be unable to focus clearly.

8. Peeing a lot

Frequent urination, with an abnormally large amount of urine, is often an early symptom of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as the body tries to rid itself of unused glucose through the urine. “Excess sugar builds up in the blood and kidneys are forced to filter and absorb the excess sugar”.

9. Hungry or thirsty a lot, even after eating

Despite its name, this condition isn’t related to diabetes. It happens when your body doesn’t make enough of a hormone that helps your kidneys control the amount of water in your body. Excessive thirst is one of the major symptoms.

10. Slow-healing sores or frequent infections.

Type 2 diabetes affects your child’s ability to heal and resist infections.

Causes for Diabetes in Children:               

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. But in most people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses mistakenly destroys insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas.

Being overweight is closely tied to the development of type 2 diabetes. Overweight children have an increased likelihood of insulin resistance. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems.

Insulin performs the critical job of moving sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream to the body’s cells. Sugar enters the bloodstream when food is digested. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems.

Type 2 diabetes is most likely to affect kids in Girls, Have a family history of diabetes; the single biggest cause of type 2 diabetes in children is extra weight.

Diagnosis

  • Type 2 diabetes in children requires testing by a pediatrician.
  • If your child’s doctor suspects type 2 diabetes, they’ll likely perform a urine glucose test, a blood sugar test a glucose tolerance test, fasting blood sugar test or an A1C Test.
  • Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes
  • Urine tests to check for the presence of ketenes’, which also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2

Treatment:

  • Treatment for children with type 2 diabetes is similar to treatment for adults. The treatment plan will vary according to the growth needs and specific concerns of your child. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is lifelong and includes blood sugar monitoring, insulin therapy, healthy eating and regular exercise — even for kids. As your child grows and changes, so will his or her diabetes treatment plan.
  • Anyone who has type 1 diabetes needs insulin treatment to survive. Many types of insulin are available
  • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is the newest way to monitor blood sugar levels. It may be most helpful for people who don’t experience the usual warning symptoms of hypoglycemia.

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