Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It’s also your brain’s main source of fuel. Glucose is what the body uses for energy, and the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin that helps convert the glucose from the food you eat into energy.  Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

     When the body either does not produce enough insulin, does not produce any at all, or your body becomes resistant to the insulin, the glucose does not reach your cells to be used for energy. The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes formerly called juvenile diabetes, because it usually is diagnosed during childhood. Type 1 Diabetes is treated by using insulin. This means that people with type 1 diabetes do not make insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot regulate the amount of glucose in the blood.
  • Type 2 Diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot use blood sugar (glucose) efficiently for energy. Which means the body does not make or use as much insulin as it needs There are multiple medications used to treat type 2 diabetes..Insulin, weight reduction or dietary changes.

Causes for Diabetes

Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. The reason there is no defined diabetes cause is because the causes of diabetes vary depending on the individual and the type.

  • Genetics and lifestyle are the most important
  • The body’s system for fighting infection
  • A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should.
  • Scientists think type 1 diabetesis caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease
  • Viral or bacterial infection Type 1 Diabetes
  • Insulin resistance is the most common causeof type 2 diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetescan be hereditary.
  • Obesity
  • Bad Diet
  • Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • One of the root causes of PCOS is obesity-linked insulin resistance, which may also increase the risk of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of diabetes:

Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not experience symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.

  • Increased thirst and hunger
  • Weight Loss or Gain
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Darkening of skin in areas of body creases
  • Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there’s not enough available insulin)
  • Irritability
  • Breath odor that is fruity, sweet or an acetone odor
  • Blurred vision
  • sexual dysfunction
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
  • Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections
  • increased urination, especially at night

Diagnosis and Treatment:

Your doctor may use one or more tests to screen for diabetes. The glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test is most common. This is a blood test that indicates your average blood sugar level during the previous two to three month.

  • Fasting blood sugar test: After fasting for 12-hours a glucose level is checked in your blood. If it is high, it is indicative of diabetes.
  • Random blood sugar test
  • Hemoglobin Test
  • A1C Test
  • Initial Glucose challenge test

Depending on what type of diabetes you have, blood sugar monitoring, insulin and oral medications may play a role in your treatment. Carbs, protein and fat are the macronutrients that provide your body with energy. Controlling your diabetes requires a careful balance of lifestyle habits, including eating right, exercising, and taking your proper medication. By paying close attention to what and when you eat, you can minimize or avoid the “seesaw effect” of rapidly changing blood sugar levels, which can require quick changes in medication dosages, especially insulin.

    You may also need other health care professionals on your diabetes treatment team, including a foot doctor, nutritionist, eye doctor and a diabetes specialist (called an endocrinologist).

  • Healthy eating, Contrary to popular perception, there’s no specific diabetes diet. You’ll need to center your diet on more fruits, vegetables, lean proteins and whole grains.
  • Exercise and Medications ( Swimming, Cycle riding ..ect)
  • glucose-controlling drugs

How to Cure:

There is no cure for diabetes, but it can go into remission. People can manage it with medication and lifestyle changes..

  • Insulin injections are the most common treatment for type 1 diabetes. People can self-administer these injections at home
  • A healthful diet and regular exercise are the first steps to managing type 2 diabetes.
  • Sugar replacements, such as stevia, may help some people manage diabetes symptoms.
  • Foods high in polyunsaturated fats, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils, are also highly beneficial for keeping down blood sugar levels.
  • If dietary changes and exercise are not possible or successful, a person can achieve weight loss through bariatric surgery.

              “A life without sweets is not much worth living.”                                                                   

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